获奖情况

         迄今已在矿床学和海洋地球化学、海岸带环境容量和深海环境保护和研究等方

面取得较好成绩,获得部级科技进步二等奖二项(前2名),省级科技进步一等奖一

项(前三名),发明专利5项,发表论文80余篇,曾被评为“大洋突出贡献专家”。

20,150 comments

  1. vz0j761xp4 says:

    The basic situation of the glacier &#91 ;1]English Name: Glacier ,also known as ,the annual average temperature at 0 ℃ the following area,snowfall is larger than the amount of accumulated snow ,the snow after a series of physical changes into the glacial ice, and at its own pressure down the slope movement .Glaciers existed in the cold .And the year is cold ,in other regions only high altitude mountain to form glacier .We know that go higher and lower temperatures ,when the elevation above a certain temperature ,will be reduced to 0 ℃,landing to the year-round presence .This glacier experts called .In the Antarctic and the glacier ,is developed in a continent ,so called .In other areas have developed in Glacier ,so called the glacier for .In the mountains, glaciers can develop ,but requires a certain altitude ,also not too steep mountains .If the mountain is too steep ,the snow will fall down ,form do not become snow .A fall to the ground will change with the external conditions ,and the change of time, after an ablation without melting the snow will become completely lost the characteristics of spherical snow ,called firn ,christian louboutin,new snow flakes from the tip and edge to the concave of migration ,the crystal rounding process called firn of .In this process ,the snow melted ,and then gradually dense ,freezing ,collision ,compaction ,so that crystals merged ,reduces the number and size increase, the pore is reduced, development neck connection ,called the densification .Snow after the snow into particles ,with the passage of time ,firn hardness between them and the close degree increases ceaselessly ,greatly small firn mutual extrusion ,closely set together ,the pore shrinking ,disappear ,snow and gradually weakened ,some air is closed inside, so that the formation of glacier ice .Firn and densification process near the melting point temperature ,were quickly ;in negative temperature ,slow .Glacier ice initially forms is milky white, after long years ,glacial ice becomes more dense and hard ,which also reduces gradually, gradually become clear ,with the same old glacial ice blue .Glacier ice under the action of gravity ,along the hillside slowly flow down (of course,christian louboutin, flow speed is slow) ,in the process of mobility, gradually solidified ,finally forming glacier .When the particle setter to 0.5 ~ 0.6 g /cm 3,slow down the process of firn .Under the action of the dead weight ,firn further compacting or by infiltration and freezing ,grain to change its size and shape ,appearance orientation growth .When its density is 0.84g / cm3,grain loss of air permeability and water permeability, will become .Firn into glacier ice from a few years to thousands of years .Formation of ice water is a kind of existence form ,is the snow after a series of changes to the .To form glacier must first have a certain amount of solid precipitation ,including snow ,fog ,hail and other .There is not enough solid precipitation as raw material ,,is equal to the root form do not become glacier .In the mountains, glaciers can develop ,but requires a certain altitude ,also not too steep mountains .If the mountain is too steep ,louboutin soldes,the snow will fall down ,form do not become snow ,also do not talk to go up to form glacier .The snowflake falls to the ground will change with the external conditions ,and the change of time, the snow will become completely lost the characteristics of snow crystal ball shape ,called firn ,glacier snow is the raw materials .Snow after the snow into particles ,with the passage of time ,firn hardness between them and the close degree increases ceaselessly ,greatly small firn mutual extrusion ,closely set together ,the pore shrinking ,disappear ,snow brightness and opacity gradually weakened ,some air is closed inside, so that the formation glacier ice .Glacier ice initially forms is milky white, after long years ,glacial ice becomes more dense and hard ,inside the bubble also decreased gradually ,gradually become clear ,with a blue crystal like old glacier ice .Glacier ice under the action of gravity ,along the hillside slowly flow down (of course, flow speed is slow) ,formed the glacier .Distribution of glaciers in the world of bipolar I and bipolar to mountains have a distribution, the earth is covered by the 1/10glacier,while the 4/5 is storedin ice ( ice ) .Modern glaciers in almost all have distribution .The earth of the glacier ,about about 29000000 square kilometers,covering 11% mainlandarea .Glacier ice water while the earth total water volume 2% ,a global volume of about 3/4 ,but can directly use the little .The modern 97% ,ice volume 99% forthe Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet occupied two ,especially the Antarctic continental ice sheet reached an area of 13980000 square kilometers( including ice shelf) ,maximum ice thickness of more than 4000 meters,ice from the sheet flow around central to flow into the sea ,the final collapse of .The area accounted for 14.5% of the total areaand mountain glaciers and 47.6% ,is the low latitude glacier development in most countries .Distribution of glaciers in China ,in Xinjiang ,Gansu ,Yunnan ,and the 6 provinces .Tibet Glacier amount up to 22468,the area amounts to 28645 square kilometers.China glacier from north to South are distributed in Tianshan ,,,,Kunlun Mountains and Himalaya Range 14mountains.These mountains mountain giant glaciers ,to provide a broad space for development and accumulation of ice water heat condition .Through the study found ,glacier area of more than 100 square kilometers of the glacier reached 33 ,which completely in China valley glaciers ,covering an area of 392.4 square kilometers ,is the largest ice Puruogangri ,covering an area of 423 square kilometers ,is the largest Chong measuring glaciers ,covering an area of 163 square kilometers .Chinese mountain glacier according to Genesis is divided into two categories and oceanic glacier .The total reserves of about 5130000000000 cubic meters .The former accounted for 80% of the total area ofthe glacier ,the latter mainly Nyainqentanglha section .According to statistics ,chanel outlet,the Himalaya Range mountains ,Kunlun Mountains ,Tianshan Mountains and glacier area of over 7000 square kilometers,four mountain glacier, a total area of 40300 square kilometers ,accounting for about 70% of the total area ofthe glacier ,the remaining 30% of the glacier area distribution and the Karakoram ,,,,,,the Qilian Mountains and the Taishan mountain cross section .Classification according to the size and shape of the glacier ,glacier is divided into ( referred to as ice ) and mountain glacier ( also known as mountain glaciers or ) .Mountain glaciers are mainly distributed in the high and middle hill region of the earth .The types, main ,Corrie glacier ,valley glacier ,.Continental ice sheets are mainly distributed in the Antarctic and greenland .Mountain glaciers are distributed in the low latitude latitude ,some of the mountains .The world glacier has a total area of L500 million squarekilometers ,including the Antarctic and Greenland continental ice sheets will occupy 14650000square kilometers.Over an area of 14000000square kilometers,nearly all of it was an average of nearly 1980 thickglacier ,the ice thickness of up to 4267 meters east .Cover the area more than 1800000 square kilometers ,the measured maximum thickness of about 3350 meters.The smaller continental ice sheets are often referred to as the ice or ice .There are two great ice sheet in Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet ,i.e. ,they accounted for the total volume of the 99%glaciers in the world ,which accounted for 90% of the Antarctic ice sheet .About 83% of the area of the Greenland glacier .Therefore ,mountain glacier and the continental ice sheet is compared ,dimensions very great disparity .Vast continental ice sheet ,ice flow ,the boundless mountain valley are covered up ,only a handful of peaks in the ice at a tip ,a vast ,has in the past is a mystery ,deep ice covered the true colors .The scientists used a prospecting method is found ,the Antarctic ice sheet below there are many small lakes ,and these have the existence of life .China glaciers are mountain glacier .Is the most abundant of Quaternary glaciation ,glacial scale expand greatly ,did not develop as the continental ice sheet .There used to be a lot of experts believe that ,chanel,when used to be a large coverage ,even now some foreign experts still holds this kind of point of view .But through investigation and argumentation ,the glacier scholars basically rejected this view .According to the glacier physical properties (such as temperature condition etc.) is divided into :①glacier,the ice year round temperature were lower than the melting point ;II ,the surface can be melt in summer ,the ice below the melting point of the majority ;temperate glacier ice in winter ,in addition to the surface of the ice sheet at the pressure nodes, melting point .Polar glaciers and polar ice and sub collectively, distribution of Antarctica and greenland .Wen Bingchuan is mainly developed in Europe ,the Scandinavia Peninsula ,such as precipitation ,and rich marine climate area .In addition to the ice body mechanics ,thermal interaction ,but also in its on surface shaping process ,namely the glacial erosion ,transportation and .Geomorphic snowline : a local location is not fixed .Seasonal changes can cause the snowline fluctuation, this temporary phenomenon called seasonal snowline .Only summer snowline position is relatively stable ,every year to return to more fixed height ,because of this ,determination of snowline in the hottest month of summer .Worldwide, the snowline is reduced by towards the poles .On line about 6000 meters in height ,and in the South and North Pole ,reducing the snowline .Snow is the last important sign ,it controlled the development and distribution of the glacier .Only the height above the snow line ,each year will have extra snow accumulation .Timeworn ,can become and glacier region .Firn basin :above the snow line ,down from the sky and the snow from the hill under the snow, easy in topography low-lying place together .As a result of low-lying topography is generally like a basin ,so in Glaciology is called the firn basin .Glacier is the cradle .Firn basin accumulation in snow ,is how to become glacial ice ?Snow after a series of ,gradually turned into a granular snow .Firn are many, the airway are communicated with each other ,thus the firn seemed like loose .In some places the firn basin of glacier in the firn is thick ,the bottom of the firn at an upper weight slowly sedimentation compaction and ,firn interconnected with ,reduce voids .At the same time the surface of the melt infiltration ,partially frozen up ,make the firn airway gradually closed .Surrounded by ice in the air to become air bubbles .The ice due to bubbles containing more, whitish in colour ,the bulk density of about 0.82 to 0.84g /cm3 ,also it is specifically called grain of snow and ice .Li Xuebing further compression ,exhausts air bubbles ,becomes pale blue glacier ice .Thick in the pressure and gravity due to the combination of export ,crossed the firn basin ,meandering ,form lengths of tongue .Long tongue can extend into the valley below and the valley .Development and maturation of the glacier are generally firn basin and the glacier tongue ,above the snow line firn basin is glacier accumulation region below the snow line ,the tongue is the glacier ablation area .Two if two end ,together control the glacier mass balance, determines the glacial activity .Snow is equivalent to balance .Corrie :in the source close to the peak and place ,always form a collecting funnel terrain .When the colder climate began to develop when the glacier near the top of the mountain ,collecting funnel ,was first occupied by the snow .Snow and ice in the collecting hopper accumulates to a certain degree ,the occurrence of flow and glacial ice .On the bottom edge of glacier and a huge plane inhibition ,it like a carpenter and so continue to work ,the original water collecting funnel being plane eclipse into mountains on three sides ,like a like shaped v .The terrain is called .Cirque mostly developed in the near snow line elevation .In general ,often climb ,to see snow firn basin .When the glaciers are gone ,the pelvic floor is a cirque lake .The mountains often can see ,they are regularly distributed in a certain height ,represents the ancient glacial age snowline .Glacial :water freezing ,volume need to increase by about 9% .When the melted snow and ice in the evening to cracks in the frozen, to the surrounding rock is playing the strong lateral pressure ,the maximum of up to 2 tonsper square centimeter .In such a strong presence in many rocks are broken .Cold not only in the hillside exposed place, in the glacier bed can also .This is because the glacier bed temporary pressure melt, melt into the bottom rock crevices ,freezing is also generated strong frost heave force .Frost weathering is constantly in the hillside and the glacier bed making loose rock debris ,on the hillside, debris under the action of gravity rolled to the glacier ,bottom bed clastic more easily by a glacier flowing together with .Glacier with gravel rock known as .The surface of the glacier rock fragments called ,glacier internal call ,glacier at the bottom of the call ,on either side of the glacier is .Lateral moraine near hillside gravel rock ,rich sources ,and lateral moraine high and large, as around two of the ice towering walls jiazhi .The front end to the tongue ,two lateral moraines are joined together ,form an annular .End moraine as high castle ,protect glacier ,climbing them ,must first on the terminal moraine ,access to the glacier .Our country western a lot of end moraine of up to 200meters.Not all the glaciers have terminal moraine ,rapid progress and receding rapidly glaciers are not only glacial terminal moraine ,in one place long pauses ,can cause large terminal moraine .Article two glacier confluence ,two adjacent lateral moraine is a .Dendritic valley glacier surface moraine ,the ice is a black-and-white banded .Glacial moraine is the transportation and deposition of the main material ,louboutin pas cher,is changing the face of earth of the evidence of the glacier .Firn basin Glacier :the snow and ice remained roughly flat ,stacked layers .Every year the accumulated ice in glaciology ,called annual layer .Winter snow through the summer after ablation, forming an ablation ,ablation surface pollution matter is more, so called the control surface .Pollution surface is divided into annual layer natural symbol .With years of layer ,ice can be measured age like tree rings .As the glaciers in the form when up some air and ,glaciologists can be extracted from the gas and dust of time .The formation of ice lake :there are three main forms of .A glacier ice thawing glaciers ,produced huge or ,cave top collapse ,forming deep large elongated lakes .A glacier is a sunken water ,in the summer to produce strong erosion function and form .In addition ,the glaciers surrounding bony horn ,constantly caving under lithic fragments .If a larger volume of rock covered in glaciers ,cause ,can grow to sizes .If the caving rock is small, in the sun heated warming will promote melting ,the rock into the ice ,forming a cylindrical .Ice cup forming speed is very quick ,on the ice to form large and small ,in the summer during the ablation ,ice water temperature is higher ,sometimes reached 5 ℃.So the water erosion is strong ,can take a cup ice gradually merged together,chaussures louboutin, forming a shallow ice lake .Ice lake to glaciers adds more blew scenery .In summer, when the Asahi rising or when the sundowners ,green flesh flesh on the lake glowing rays shine in all directions. ,splendid .: summer ,often in the state of glacier ablation .The melting of the glaciers ,and divided into three .Often continue to Glacier bottom conveyor ,thereby causing the ice ablation under .But the ice ablation under the great glacier body ,is the .When the ice melt along the glacier crack into the glacier internal ,can produce ice ablation .Ice ablation results ,pregnant with many unique glacier karst phenomenon ,such as ice ,ice cave,christian louboutin, tunnel and funnel ,etc ( we know is formed ,by ice ablation induced by like the Karst landform ,glaciologists called the glacier morphology for Karst glacier ) .: glacier meltwater ,in the flow of the process, often form dendrimers river network ,sometimes climbed zigzag flow ,sometimes dived in ice .In some meltwater much area large glaciers ,ice River special development .When the ice from the ice tongue end of outflow ,often eroded deep cave .The hole as a low or high ancient arches .From the hole to flow out of the water ,because the suspended sludge from the sand ,like milk and white ,glaciology called .When the glaciers flow into the hole ,when ,as if into a crystal palace .Some glaciers ,ice cave tunnel through ,always can go to the glacier bottom go to .The cave is unitary ,a dendritic ,inside a cave .The cave is bristly ,ice stalactites suspended with hole wall ,pattern is very beautiful .Some ice export over ice ,forming a very spectacular ice water waterfall .Ice :ice differential ablation produced many splendid scene ,such as the wall of ice ,ice bud ,louboutin pas cher Baidu search news London opening at a cost of,and etc. .In particular, has attracted many people .Mount Qomolangma and regions of the many glacier ,developed the world forest of seracs .A mountain and a few tens of meters high Serac ,as if with the sculpture out of the air ,they stand in the glacier ,varied types and poses .Some like the ,spire, some like banks ,some like the deadlocked lie ,some also like to sky sword .Ice mushroom :glaciers surrounding rocks ,constantly caving under lithic fragments .If the caving rock is small, in the sun heated warming will promote melting ,results of rock into ice ,forming a cylindrical ice cup ,and the formation of ice lake .If a larger volume of rock covered in glaciers ,causing differential ablation ,when the surrounding ice melt ,and large stones because blotted out the sun radiation ,the ice did not melt ,can grow to sizes of ice mushroom .Movement of the early nineteenth Century, in ,there are several climbers are buried in Glacial Snow bowl .When a glacier workers speculated that, over forty years after the person appear in front .Indeed it is as expected ,after forty-three years, these unfortunate corpse in the tongue before appeared, the climbers companion in survivors soon put the corpse identified .In 1827, a worker at the the Alps on Eagle glaciers built a stone house .Thirteen years later ,found the house to move downstream of 1428meters.Cabin itself is not moving ,causing the house moving is the cause of cabin with the downward movement of the glacier ,hut incidentally moved together .Some and flow similarity on both sides ,intermediate and fast, slow .If you plug in a row across the ice ,not too long time can be found ,the middle is far ahead to ,the original linear flower line into downstream to a convex curve .Many image appearing very strange arc arch ,is glacier movement process, intermediate and two speed is not a generation .The surface of the glacier often have many ,some tens of meters deep fissures .Existence of fissures ,illustrate the glaciers have .However ,christian louboutin pas cher,after hundreds of years of investigation and observation on the glacier fissures ,rarely exceeds sixty meters deep .The majority of fractures is far less than the depth of closed .The lower part of the glacier is again ,it can be adapted to a variety of soft without rupture .Therefore ,the glacier can be divided into two layers ,the surface is easy to break this layer called fragile belt ,and the lower part is soft the layer called the plastic belt .The plastic belt is the root cause of glacier flow .Glacial movement causes objects in stress situations ,in order to adapt or eliminating the external force ,can make three kinds of deformation ,i.e. ,and ( or ) .General object under stress are the three deformation stages .For example a ,in general ,elastic deformation ;when the force exceeds the elastic strength ,as plastic deformation ,spring back to its original position ;when the force exceeds the rupture strength of large ,spring break ,as brittle deformation .However ,the three stages of what there is from the Lord ,three stages are not equally go halves on a fifty-fifty basis .How deformation ,depending on the nature of the material itself .On the ice ,because it is easy to realize the internal sliding ,is conducive to show plastic deformation .However ,when the external force is suddenly increased, it ice ,brittle deformation ( ) .Only in the slow loading and stress for a long time ,the ice can fully show plastic deformation characteristics .We know ,objects in the long-term stress ,even if the force is small ,also can produce plastic deformation .In the lower part of the upper glacier ,ice and upstream ice ,always in a state of stress, so that the lower part of the plastic ice have been fully .At the same time ,the lower the melting point of ice due to the compression of the upper lower than ice ,the ice is more close to the lower melting point ,thus the plasticity can be realized more easily .Thus ,glaciers occurred in the lower part of the plastic belt is not difficult to understand .And the surface of the glacier ,the lack of long-term stress of this important condition ,when the external force is increased suddenly ,often as elastic or brittle deformation ,become brittle zone .In a smooth ,glacier flows when the maximum velocity appeared on the surface of the glacier ,the nearer the bottom velocity is reduced ,this movement is called .If the glacier movement process, in the front have protruding or movement slow occlusion ,there formed after the squeeze pressure shear stress ,the flow is called the obstruction of gravity flow .In the event of obstructive gravity flow place ,ice often have many ,there are complicated by the emergence of .Glacier velocity glacier movement velocity ,average only a few centimeters ,many are only a few meters away ,so that the naked eye cannot find glacier is in motion .Greenland glaciers ,the largest in the world, but every year but the movement more than 1000 meters.Other glaciers ,as compared to the well-known some the Alps glacier ,years of velocity but 80~ 150 meters.China glaciers are most continental glaciers ,not rich ,glacier is relatively slow ,chanel borse,resulting in relatively low .Glacier velocity is a seasonal variation in the winter ,summer fast slow .And glaciers ,summer sports speed than winter fast 50% ( refer to terms) .The reason for this difference is one of glacier changes in temperature .When the ice temperature ,ice viscosity decreases rapidly, from -20 ℃to -l℃,increased with temperature ,ice for nearly straight down .The viscosity decreases the plasticity increases ,thus the glacier movement speed .Ice melt water in glacial internal and the bottom is to promote rapid movement of glaciers another reason .Glacier velocity in general is very slow .However ,some glaciers temper is weird ,they will in the long slow motion or retreat after the sudden outbreak of forward .The fastest moving glacier American Alaska Anchorage of California between Val Diez and Columbia Glacier is 54 km long, 4.8 km wide,the highest point of 910 meters .In 1999 it moved with an average speed of 35 meters perday ,in 20 years of in the past its moving speed of one times .Glacier fluctuations explosive advance in such glacier is recurrent ,glacier motion in a particular way .People call this phenomenon ,with glacier fluctuation properties called moving glacier glacier .Glacier fluctuation often cause .In the upstream there is a glacier ,periodically into the main Valley ,when it blocked rivers lakes ,formed after the outburst ,lake ,louboutin soldes Baidu search MP3 A Gui,and the formation of large, resulting in disaster .In the periodic catastrophic flooding ,may also be associated with glaciers fluctuation burst of the .Effect of erosion glaciers have very strong, for the majority of machinery ,its erosion can be divided into several kinds: ( 1):when the ice bottom or cirque back along the joint of bedrock ,repeated freezing and thawing and loose ,if these loose rocks and ice frozen together ,when the glacier movement when the rock pulling away ,this is called a plucking .By plucking the glacial Valley its slope is rugged ,form a trapezoidal gradient profile curve .( 2):when the glacier moves, frozen in a glacier or ice rock fragments, due to pressure of above glacier ,glacier bed for grinding and etching ,called abrasion action .Abrasion action in rock formation with scratches and scrapes ,or groove is a good evidence of glaciation ,the direction can be used to indicate the direction of travel of the glacier .( 3):ice wedge effect in rock cracks in the ice melt water ,after repeated ,chanel outlet,volume rising caused by shrinkage ,fractured rock ,into pieces, or from both sides of the hillside crashed to the glacier moves forward .( 4)other :when the ice water into the river ,often mixed with large volume of ice ,can have a strong impact force damage downstream sides of rock .Force was affected by the following factors 🙁 1)the thickness of the ice and .Heavy thick and strong erosion .( 2)the ice movement speed .Big and strong erosion speed .( 3)carry the number of stones .Carrying amount of more and more severe, erosive force is more powerful .( 4)the ground rock rough or smooth .The rough surface is easily influenced by glacial erosion .( 5)the bottom rock property ,bottom rock soft person is more susceptible to erosion .( 6)the direction of tilt and rock glaciers move direction ,and prone to erosion .Due to erosion caused by 🙁 1)cirque :for valley glaciers formed in one of the major landforms ,near snow line ,on a gentle mountain or low-lying snow up due to snow ,the repeated freezing and thawing ,causing the rock disintegration ,gravity and snowmelt water under the common action of the rock erosion ,into a bowl or a horseshoe ,so the formation of typical cirque .Corrie three face is a steep rock face ,downhill a ,if after ,depressions with water ,namely a glacial lake .( 2),horn ,ice dummy: if the cirque because dig erosion and frozen erosion continued to expand ,cirque wall retreat ,adjacent cirque between two ridges is gradually thinned and the formation of the blade shape ,called arete .While several cirques the intersection of peaks ,shape is very sharp, then known as the horn .In the edge ridge between the lower saddle ,for ice dumb .( 3)truncated spur ,depressions ,stone :when the valley glaciers from the downward movement ,spur is cut into triangles ,called the truncated spur .Because the cross section shapes such as U shape ,called type U valley .U Valley sides have obvious Valley Valley shoulder ,shoulder below the valley walls are straight ,wide at the bottom and flat,louboutin soldes, if in the glacial valley bottom, the glacial erosion caused by digging ,christian louboutin pas cher,downward concave pool ,stone .( 4):at high latitudes, the glacier can often extends into the ocean ,in the shore erosion into some deep U Valley ,chanel,when the ice retreated ,along the valley into the far away ,the original ice valley into the fjord .( 5):hanging valleys are formed from glacial erosion force difference ,main glacier ice thickness ,because of corrosion of strong, so the U Valley is deep ;and Zhi Bingchuan because the ice is thin ,weak corrosion ,so the U Valley is shallow .Because in the glacier and the main glacier confluence ,often glacial bottom level disparity ,when a glacier ice in glaciers will be suspended in falling into shape ,called the hanging valley .( 6):as the glacier bed an erosion terrain ,is composed of bedrock consists of hills ,often clumped distribution ,such as distant creeping flock ,called moutonnee .The plane is elliptic ,long axis direction and the ice flow direction, to Glacier upstream slope due to glacial erosion ,slope gradient is lower ,a relatively flat ,and there are many scratches ;and on the other side ,by glacial digs the inhibition of rugged ,slope ,slope is steep .Sarsen stone formation ,as rock is soft and is arranged ,when erosion ,weathering effect check line, soft rock strata eroded more than deep ;and hard rock resistant to erosion ,weathering ability ,so the erosion ,weathering ,hard rock strata soft rock layer the elliptic shape ,uplift terrain ,surface abrasion ,corrosion by digging side .( 7):Glacier polished surface ,on the sheep stone or type U Valley Gubi and in large ,often because of ice formed by the action of polished surface ,when the glacier material is sand and silt ,in dense rock, polished surface is more developed ;if the glacier handling for gravel ,in the valley walls etching streaking or groove ,called glacial scratch ,scratch is rough ,the other end is thin, the thicker end pointing upstream .Transportation due to the glacial transgression transport effects produced by the large number of loose debris from the hillside and caving chip ,will enter the glacier system ,together with the glacier motion ,these were handling debris called ,according to the different positions of the glacier ,can be divided into different transport types :(1 ):exposed surface moraine on the surface of the glacier of the moraine .( 2)internal moraine :clip in the glaciers ( 3)bottom moraine moraine :accumulation in glacial Valley moraine .( 4)lateral moraine :in on either side of the glacier accumulation moraine .( 5)in the moraine :two glacier confluence ,the adjacent lateral moraine that be made one ,is located in the joined glacier intermediate called in moraine .( 6)terminal moraine ( end moraine ) :with ,and in the surrounding glacial terminal moraine, known as the terminal moraine .( 7)recessional moraine : as the glaciers are retreating process, can cause local short stay, every once in a while to stay will cause a recessional moraine .( 8)boulder :Glacier ,louboutin soldes,not only can be the moraine move to a very far place ,can also be huge rock to very high portion, these were carrying huge rock that is known as the boulder ,christian louboutin Baidu search MP3 you have life Sh,the lithology and the adjacent rock is completely different .Glacier handling capability is very strong ,but relatively ,the glacier panning capability is very poor .Accumulation of glacier carrying sand ,often along the way out, so in the future, different forms of the handling of the material ,packing down form corresponding to various moraine .The so-called moraine, is defined by the glaciers caused directly by the a layer of ice accretion .Ice accretion ,refers to the direct deposited by a glacier material ,or as a result of glacial action ,and because of glaciation and deposited in rivers and lakes in the ocean of material .Ice accretion can be divided into a layer of ice accretion and into a layer of ice accretion both: (1 )a layer of ice accretion :the ice accretion is a residue caused ,because the ice is melting and left on the ground of the packing size, less with stones angle ,surface to be polished ?Or with scratches ,packing for the bedding ,such messy no bedding ice accretion ,often referred to by the moraine moraine terrain are formed 🙁 ground moraine Hills ) :melting glaciers ,the original surface moraine moraine moraine in all sink into the bottom of the glacier bottom moraine ,and are collectively referred to as the ground moraine ,the moraine by glacial valley topography ,accumulation of slope shape rolling hills ,known as the moraine hills .Continental glacier moraine hills area is larger, and valley glaciers formed by interlobate moraine ,a much smaller scale .: consists of lateral moraines and glacial retreat at a common table Moraine in the accumulation of the glacial Valley ,located in two sides ,a levee to Glacier upstream can be extended to near snow ,and is often connected to the downstream and .End moraine :terminal moraine reflect glacier retreat is temporarily pause stage ,if the glaciers supply and ablation in a state of equilibrium ,christian louboutin pas cher,then the end of glacier can be slightly stays at a position ,then transported by glaciers of the material ,will be available in the glacier is stacked into arc-shaped dike ,called terminal moraine .Continental glacial terminal moraine dam with small height ,length of up to several hundred kilometers ,louboutin soldes,arcuate curvature is smaller ;conversely ,valley glaciers end moraine height up to hundreds of meters ,smaller size ,larger arc curvature .: drumlin is made of ice accretion which consists of a hilly ,approximately elliptical long axis ,in line with the direction of flow ,the ice is steep, dorsal ice is a gentle slope,chaussures louboutin, the asymmetric convex .Is generally believed that drumlin is due to the glacial handling ability is abate ,ground moraine obstructed the stacked .It is mainly distributed in the continental glacial terminal moraine levees within several to tens kilometers ,often appear in groups ,causing the drumlin field ;valley glacier drumlin fewer in number .( 2)into a layer of ice accretion :This is the glaciers and ice water deposition results ,glacier carried material by melting ice scouring and washing ,in accordance with the particle size ,stacked layers ,forming ice water accumulation ,while in the glacier edge by ice water accumulation to a variety of landforms ,called .Any of the following types: ,,the outer punch plain : the glacier at the end of the ice melt water carried by the large number of gravel ,stacked in front of glacier valley or plain ,on the formation of continental glaciers outwash ;if in the end ,this kind of sediments can stretch for kilometres ,in the terminal moraine of the peripheral accumulation of fan ,called the outwash fan ;a plurality of outwash fan is connected ,it formed the majority of ice water ,also known as the outer punch .In these ,gently downwards toward downstream sediments ,particle size is smaller to the downstream ., : ice lake is formed by glacial melt ,as the glacier retreated, in front of the ice accretion can block the access glacier ,often can water into .Ice lake has obvious seasonal variation ,the summer ice melt water more, large amounts of a substance into the lakes, some coarse rapid deposition ,and fine particles suspended in the water ,much lighter ;while winter ice melt water reduced ,some long-term suspension of fine particles of clay began to deposition ,deep color .Thus ,in a lake created a coarse fine easily identifiable two layers of sediments ,called varve .Kame port :boulder port for bedding and the separation of the fine powder sand composition ,shape is circular or irregular knoll .Kame port part usually has a layer of ice ,gravel port is due to ice Lake Creek or stagnant glacier Xuexi sediments ,in the glacier ablation Shen after the fall on the bed accumulation ,the drumlin difference ,is that ice port is very irregular in shape ,and the layered .In Glaciology and valley glaciers have developmental kame port .: in on either side of the glacier ,due to rock wall and lateral moraine absorbs more heat, and on either side of the glacier ice than intermediate to low ,so the ice melt water is brought together in this ,the formation of ice side the river ,and bring water ice ,ice water disappear until after ,christian louboutin pas cher,these substances accumulate in the glacial Valley sides, forming glacial boulder port terrace ,it only developed in the valley glacier .Water ice ( ice cave ) :plain often has a circular depressions ,known as the kettle .Its formation is due to glacial loss ,some residual ice isolated the buried ice water sediments, when the ice melted and caused the collapse ,kettle .: eskers is a long and narrow tortuous terrain ,a serpentine Bay song ,the two wall is steep ,narrow hill top ,which extends in a direction generally and glacier flow ,mainly in the continental glacier region .Eskers causes mainly: 1 in themelting of glaciers ,ice melt infiltrated along glacier in Glacier ,base flow ,louboutin pas cher,the formation of ice tunnel ,to be completely melted ice ,tunnel in gravel is deposited and formed eskers .2 in the summer,ice melt water ice deposits increased ,the glaciers in the end is formed ,wait until the next summer ,glaciers back up again, and then forming an ice water ,so repeatedly ,an ice water delta together, they form a beaded esker .Fade profile due to global warming ,the world glacier area and volume are reduced significantly ,some even disappeared .This phenomenon in the low and the place is especially significant .The current situation since 1980 ,world glacier average thickness reduction of about 11.5 meters,it is mainly attributed to human abuse ,such as fuel oil caused by climate warming .In March 16th, said in a statement, the whole world glacier melting speed achieves historical record for the fastest glacier ,which Europe most serious losses ,the main reason is .

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